(1ai)population density is defined as the number of persons per unit area of land or per square kilometre of land. population density of a country can be expressed as
population density= total population/ land area
birth rate: it is the rate at which children are being given birth to in a country. high birth rate may lead to population increase or over population while low birth rate can lead to under population
Optimum population: optimum population is the number of people that can be supported by the available resources in an area, so as to achieve the highest possible standard of living

(i)legislation against abortion: Abortion should be strictly abolished by the government so as to increase the number of children given birth to
(ii)Absence of family planning or deregulation of birth control programmes to the public helps in increasing the birth rate
(iii)Encouragement of polygamy:polygamous family should be encouraged so that the number of population can be increased
(iv)government incentives, such as free medical care, free education and as well as child welfare benefits


(i)Two characteristics features of cornubation are:
-It is formed when two or more towns merge
-Each of the merging towns retains its distinct identity
(ii)Two characteristics features of megalopolis are :
-it contains large numbers of towns
-Its growth is due to economic development

Six functions of settlements are:
-Military function:some settlement have been built for military reasons eg Kano and zaria
-Commercial functions:Market centres situated in centrally located positions such as the meeting point of roads,rivers and railway routes eg Katsina,Kano and onitsha
-Minning function:some towns develop as a result of the presence of minerals.it attracts the people who seek employment in the minning centres eg Jos,Enugu,Porthacourt
-Cultural functionsSome towns perform cultural functions when they act as the custordians of the cultures of their areas eg Ife,Oyo,Benin,Kano
-Resort functions:some towns provide resort or holidays to people to rest eg Jos in the jos plateau is used as health resort by many Europeans who work in Nigeria because of its cool climate
-Administrative function:Some towns act as the administrative capitals of their state.The seat of government is located in these towns eg Abuja is the capital of Nigeria,Oyo as the headquater of yoruba kingdom,Benin as the capital of Edo knigdom


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