i ) Buying and Assembling:
The wholesaler purchases
goods in large quantities from
different manufacturers and
assembles them at one place and stores them in his
warehouse and resell to the
ii ) Warehousing:
By preserving the goods
received from different
manufacturers in stores, the
wholesaler performs the
function of warehousing . The storage of goods is needed on
account of time lag between
production and consumption of
iii ) Grading and Packaging :
The assembled goods are
graded in accordance with their
quality and packed in different
containers before supplying to
the retailers . In this manner , the wholesaler performs
important marketing functions
of grading and packing .
iv ) Transportation :
The wholesalers purchase
goods from manufacturers and
carry them to his godowns and
then supply the same to the
retailers . He may employ his own vans or hire vehicles for
carrying the goods on account
of bulk purchases . They can
avail of economies in freight .
i ) Close Supervision :
The small scale business owner
can himself supervise the
details of the business. Nobody
will be allowed to spoil machinery or waste materials.
ii ) Economical Management:
It is unnecessary to engage
large staff . Verbal messages
will take the place of written
orders which are generally half
understood. No elaborate accounts need be kept .
iii ) Personal Attention to
Customers: The small scale
businessman sends away his
customers perfectly satisfied.
He personally attends to their
orders and at once removes difficulties and
misunderstandings . Personal
contact is pleasant and
iv ) Personal Touch with the
The employer is in constant
touch with his employees in the
case of small scale business. He
can promptly attend to their difficulties or grievances and
remove them without delay .
v ) Greater Adaptability :
If conditions of trade change ,
the small producer can change
his front. He is in a position to
take quick decisions. He has to
consult nobody except himself unlike the large scale business .
Marine insurance is a type of
insurance that covers the loss
or damage of ships , cargo ,
terminals, and any transport or
cargo by which property is transferred , acquired, or held
between the points of origin
and final destination.
Accident insurance is a form of
insurance policy which offers a
payout when people experience
injury or death due to an
accident . This type of insurance does not usually cover
negligence, acts of God, or
natural disasters , and the
policy may include restrictions
such as caps on total payouts or
restrictions on payouts for activities deemed risky .
Group insurance is an insurance
that covers a defined group of
people , for example the
members of a society or
professional association , or the employees of a particular
Group coverage can help reduce
the problem of adverse
selection by creating a pool of
people eligible to purchase insurance who belong to the
group for reasons other than
the wish to buy insurance ,
which might be because they
are a worse than average risk.
Fidelity Insurance is an
agreement whereby, for a
designated sum of money , one
party agrees to guarantee the
loyalty and honesty of an agent, officer , or employee of an
employer by promising to
compensate the employer for
losses incurred as a result of
the disloyalty or dishonesty of
such individuals .
Consequential loss insurance
cover business losses that arise
from damage to an insured
property. Consequential loss
insurance policies diminish indirect risks that arise from a
situation and are typically
offered in combination with
regular business or property
insurance . Consequential loss
is an indirect loss , as opposed to a loss from a natural disaster
Turn over is the total net sales of any business within a given period of time minus the cost of goods returned back to the business.
i)Goodwill and reputation of the businessman;-A businessman with a good reputation,and who has the good will of being honest,polite,sound public relations,gives prompt services,always has the advantage of high customers patronage
ii) Advertising and sales promotion;-Business that utilizes advertising and sales promotion extensively records a high rate of turn over than others.
iii)Pricing techniques;- Business that applies low pricing techniques enjoys high rate of turnover than those with high pricing techniques.
iv)Use of credit facilities;-where a businessman grants credit facilities to customers,he will sale more,than where credit facilities are not offered to customers.
v)Location of business;-well located businesses especially those located in busy centres,hearts of the cities knonw by such businesses are bound to record hugh rate of turnover than others
vi)Seasonal goods record high rate of turnover during season and records very low rate of turnover during off season.
i)It requires few sales attendant.
ii)it allows customer to do their shopping in a shop with little sales attendant.
iii)security man stand at the gate of a shop that adopt self service for pilfering.
iv)goods are conspiciously arranged and displayed on the shalves of the shop.
v)goods are neatly arranged and displayed on the shelves in order to encourage impuls buying and increase sales
i)It encourages impulse buying which increase sales
ii)self service quicken customers shopping
iii)self service leads to low price of goods.
iv)it gives customer the chance to make their choice without being confused into buying what they do not want to buy.
v)fewer sales assistance have to be employed bore thereby cutting cost.
i)it is used as basis for planning
ii)it is a sign of viability of business enterprises
iii)it gies investors d inside strength of the business organisation
iv)its used in measuring the firms capability in paying its debt
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